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MAME 0.220

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Guide: Migrating to Linux in 2020

EDIT: If you like this post enough to give it an award, consider donating to the EFF, FSF, your favorite distro, or maybe helping #TeamTrees instead. Thanks.

Guide: Migrating to Linux in 2020

1. Prelude

This is an updated version of my previous guide "Guide: Migrating to Linux in 2019". We've had some nice changes this year and, although most of the content will be similar to last year's, it's nice to have an updated guide so that user's can feel confident is some what up to date.
If you're interested in seeing how Linux performs in gaming these days, LowSpecGamer uploaded a video on February 21, 2020 that gives a pretty honest review.

2. Getting Started

So, you want to get started in Linux. The most important thing you need to remember is that you're using Linux.
Now that might seem obvious, but you'd be surprised how often you'll see "Why isn't this easy like in Windows?" or "I just want it to act like my Mac."
While I do understand that it's hard to get used to something you're not familiar with, I promise that, in time, it will be just as comfortable as Windows or macOS.
Curious to see Linux gaming in action before getting your feet wet? PCgamingFreedom has an amazing thread with a huge list of Youtubers that play games on Linux.
Want to checkout the latest news for Linux gaming? Take a trip to GamingOnLinux.

3. The software

Perhaps the biggest hurdle of using Linux is compatibility issues with the software you currently use. Before you get started on your journey, I would highly recommend you do a bit of prep work here.
  • Which software do I commonly use?
    • Get a pen and paper and start writing a list. Include your most played games (and the ones that you are sure that you will want to play in the future) and the software you need for a computer to be your daily driver (Office, Photoshop, etc).
Now that you have a list, let's check. There are four possible outcomes for each item in your list.
  • You will be able to run it natively.
    • This is almost always the best case scenario, since it's the one where you will get all the performance and compatibility without drawbacks.
  • You will be able to run it, but not natively.
    • You'll most often find this with Proprietary software and is the nature of using closed source software. We have a few tricks up our sleeves that we can try and we'll get to those a little later.
  • Cloud Software (SaaS or Software as a Service)
    • Though not ideal, especially in a world where owing your own software is becoming less and less common, a lot of business and professional software can be run "in the cloud". Office 365 is a prime example and allows people like me to work on Linux computers at work since I can still access all the Microsoft Office applications required to interact with my coworkers.
  • You won't be able to run it.
    • This is the big one, the one that will hold you back. Sometimes, and it's not your fault, there is a killer app that you absolutely need in order for your computer to be useful to you. While it would be great if the OSS community provided a good alternative to you, we understand that this is not always the case. There's no shame in this. Thank you for trying.
In order to catalog your list into these four outcomes, you grab the first item on the list. If it's a game, check in SteamDB if the game does have Linux support (Note: Sometimes the game offers Linux support even if it's not listed here or in steam). In 2018, Valve released a compatibility software called Proton that is based on Wine. Check ProtonDB (used to be called Steam Compatibility Reports) to see if your Windows only games run fine under it. If it's software, just check in the official website if there's a Linux version.
If you've done that and there's no Linux support, we go to the next step. Bring up the Wine AppDB and put there the name of your software. Click on the link that fits the most your search (Usually the first link, ignore all the [Bug XXXXX] results) and check the rating of the game. Generally you'll be able to use it if it's not bronze or garbage. If you click in the version of the software, you'll see reports of people who have tried to run it, known bugs and general instructions and steps to follow. For now we're just cataloging the software, so we'll see how to actually install it later. If there's no search results there's still hope. Do a quick google search (probably "NameOfTheSoftware Wine support") and see what happens. If the software you want to use is really small and unknown probably nobody tried it, but just leave it marked as "dubious" or something because you may be able to run it anyways.
If what you want to run shows as garbage in there (and most of the times bronze, you seriously want to read the reports to see what works and what doesn't) you just put it in the "I won't be able to run it" section. Now repeat with each element of the list until you've gone through your list.
There is also a paid for solution called Crossover made by CodeWeavers. CodeWeavers are the same minds behind Valve's Proton so you should expect a pretty good product in general. They have a search feature that you should also use.
I will mention that some games are more problematic then others. For example, League of Legends is notorious for needing custom versions of Wine to get working. Thankfully, it has a dedicated subreddit /leagueoflinux which has the latest news and tends to be very helpful.
You got your list and a general idea of what you can run and what you can't run and at which degree you will be able to use it. If you have something that needs to be run but you can't run, here's a small list of alternatives you can use.
  • Look for an alternative. If it's a game I'd say that you should look for games with similar tags in steam. If it's software use something like alternativeto
  • Use a windows VM. Useful if the software you want to run is not resource intensive (99% of the time games won't like this, so don't use this for games unless you're going to attempt the GPU passthrough option)
  • Dual boot.
  • GPU passthrough. This is hard. You need to met a lot of requirements and invest time, but if you can pull it out you can get the best of both worlds. The Level1Techs forum has been one of the driving forces behind using this technology and has a lot of information on the subject. (You can also check out their Linux Youtube channel)

4. The swap

If you are here, congratulations! You want to get started with Linux and you have all your software narrowed down. In order to get started in the odyssey of Linux, you have to think about what distribution (informally referred to as distro) you want to use. The distribution is just the flavor of Linux you want to use. Just to be clear from the start, pretty much every distribution is equally capable of gaming and running software. The differences between them are:
  • The preinstalled software.
    • Some are more minimalist than others, but all of them can run the same software. With enough patience, you can turn one distribution into another just by installing and removing stuff.
  • The update frequency.
    • Some distros release updated software faster than others. Distros that push out updated software with minimal testing are known as bleeding edge distros or rolling release distros. If you want to be up to date with features, you want a bleeding edge distro, but in exchange for the latest and greatest features you run an increase risk of running into bugs. Stable Release distros usually have to wait longer for updates, but those updates are often heavily vetted before being pushed out.
  • The community.
    • Different distros have different communities. The distros that are perceived to be easier or more user friendly tend to have communities that are quicker to help with easy to follow instructions.
  • The other minor things including default configurations, art, fonts, etc.
Now that I've explained that, I'm going to list off the only two distributions that are supported by Valve. Again, this does not mean that these are the only two distros that will work for gaming!
Distribution Explanation
Ubuntu LTS The latest Ubuntu LTS (20.04 as of this writing). Ubuntu also has a new user friendly community. If you don't know what to choose, pick this one.
Steam OS SteamOS is usually several months behind in software releases and isn't really aimed at being used as a computer. Biggest advantage is that it boots directly into Steam and is made to be a console replacement.
If you're feeling particularly adventurous , there are a huge amount of distros you can try out! While not officially supported by Valve, any modern, up to date, distro will more than likely work for you. Some of the favorites in the comments are:
Distribution Explanation
Solus Solus brings updates to its users by means of a curated rolling release model.
openSUSE Offers both a rolling release (Tumbleweed) and a regular release (Leap) option.
Endeavour Endeavour is an ArchLinux based distro. Uses the offical ArchLinux software repositories.
Manjaro Based on ArchLinux, but uses its own repositories and includes other features like automatic graphic card drivers installation. (Recommended by LTT)
Pop!_OS Pop!_OS is a Linux distribution developed by System76 based on Ubuntu, using the GNOME Desktop Environment. Has a Nvidia and a AMD/Intel image for convenience. (Recommended by LTT)
Linux Mint Offers two versions. "Linux Mint" is based on Ubuntu and "LMDE" is based on Debian.
elementryOS Based on Ubuntu, elementryOS strives to be the extremely user friendly.
Fedora Made by Red Hat, one of largest open source companies, which use the dnf package manager and has a lot of officially supported desktop environments.
Others There are a ton of Linux distros out there. Feel free to browse distrowatch if you're bored.
If you are having trouble deciding, just start with Ubuntu. It's not the flashiest, but you're almost guaranteed to find an answer to your problem if you search "My Problem Ubuntu" in your favorite search engine (make sure to limit the search to only things from the past year). You can always switch later.
Most of them will let you install next to Windows and set up a dual boot automatically. Be careful though, Windows Updates have a bad habit of changing the boot loader and it will look like your Linux OS vanished. REMEMBER TO DO BACKUPS. Things can always go wrong and you don't want to lose anything. It's FOSS has a video on dual booting if you'd like a visual example, but it basically boils down to you clickin an option that says "Install along side Windows".

5. The habit

So, you've installed your distro and you have your computer running Linux. Congratulations! The absolute most important part of becoming a Linux user is to consistently use Linux! The last step is to get all of your software back running so you can use your computer as a daily driver.
A few things first:
This is rather controversial, but you do not be afraid of the terminal. While the terminal is absolutely not required to do your normal day to day activities, you'll often find solutions to your problems require you to enter a few lines into the terminal. This isn't any sort of magic and it's nothing to be fearful of using. The reason for this is because the terminal is, generally, distro agnostic and it's easier to explain one line of code instead of having lots of different pictures showing you what to click in each distro.
Second, use the internet! Everyone starts as a beginner at some point. You might be very comfortable in Windows or macOS now, but at some point you had no idea what you were doing. That's very normal! As you use Linux more and more you'll gain the knowledge and experience needed and eventually it will feel like home. There's absolutely no shame in asking questions!
If you are coming from Windows, you are probably used to search for an .exe and install it by double clicking. Things are way different here. Installing software individually is often discouraged. The reasons for this varies, but security and compatibility are the main reasons. So what do you do in Linux? You use a package manager. Think of it as being similar to the Play store, but instead of random people uploading software to it, everything is maintained by your distribution's software team.
Package managers have a lot of benefits that may not be immediately obvious to new users. The package manager knows what other software is required to work on your system and can manage updating all of the software pieces you have without you manually having to handle it. As I mentioned earlier, since your distribution's software team creates these packages, the chances of installing malware on your system is very slim.
Remember when I said don't be afraid of the terminal? Here's a good example as to why. To install Steam on Ubuntu, Linux Mint, or most other distros that derive from Ubuntu, all you have to do is open a terminal and type:
sudo apt install steam 
Video example. And that's it. Steam is installed, from a trusted source and with everything it needs. Do you want to update all the stuff installed in your system?
sudo apt upgrade 
Let's break those two lines down a bit so you know what's going on. sudo stands for "super user do". You can think of this like right clicking and choosing the "Run As Administrator" in Windows. apt is the package manager's name. install is the command to install programs. steam is the steam software. So in English we just said. "Please install the "steam" program as administrator (called root on Linux)."
Now, if you wanted to use the graphical way, I'd have to post pictures from Ubuntu, Mint, etc and they all look slightly different and you have to find their front end in different places. It's just easier this way.
So what do you do if the software you need isn't in your package manager? The next best thing is to add a 3rd party repository to your package manager. As an example, let's add Google Chrome, a popular web browser. UbuntuUpdates.org give the following instructions:
wget -q -O - https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | sudo apt-key add - sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google.list' sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install google-chrome-stable 
That looks a bit scary, but it's just adding the security key and repository to your system and then installing Google Chrome. You'll want to use a PPA of your software when possible since it will update with the rest of your system.

6. Windows compatibility

So you can't find a Linux version of that software you want to install? Our last step is to try Wine. Wine is a compatibility layer that tries to translate Window Binaries (.exes) calls into Linux calls. Sometimes this works really well, and other times nothing happens at all.
First, let's install Wine.
sudo apt install wine 
On some systems, installing Wine allows you to double click an .exe and it will try to run just like in Windows, but if not, you'll want to open a terminal and type (credit to whyhahm for suggesting cd to directory before running):
cd /path/to/program; wine file.exe 
Remember to check the ratings and know issues in the wine AppDB so you know what you can expect, and you should be golden. Here's an in-depth guide of wine stuff but again, google and find how stuff works and it works. If you don't understand, please ask! The community is usually happy to help!
There are also some programs that try to help you with Wine. Lutris and PlayOnLinux are popular options.

7. DXVK/D9VK/Gallium Nine

What are DXVK/D9VK/VK9/Gallium Nine? I'll let the projects explain themselves:
DXVK: Vulkan-based D3D11, D3D10, and now D3D9, implementation for Linux / Wine
D9VK: Used to be separate from DXVK, but now they are one project. Kept seperate on this page for searching.
Gallium Nine: Gallium Nine allows to run any Direct3D 9 application with nearly no CPU overhead, which provides a smoother gaming experience and increased FPS. Gallium Nice requires you to be using the Mesa3D driver though, so Nvidia users are out of luck. (Thanks to MicroToast for the clarification)
Okay, but what does that mean?
Direct3D (the graphical part of the DirectX API) is what most Windows game built after ~2000 use. You don't really need to know any technically details about it other than the fact that it's a Windows' only API. For the longest time, one of the biggest bottle necks for gaming on Linux was translating the Direct3D calls to OpenGL (a cross platform graphical API that works on Linux/most other OSes).
All of these projects attempt to translate Direct3D calls to something that Linux understands. As far as I'm aware, the most used one is DXVK.
Using these technologies, you can get huge performance boosts in your games. Here is Starcraft 2 running on d9vk vs regular Wine. You can see that Tuxidermy is getting almost twice the FPS most of the time (and D9VK is still really young). Here is another example, this time with World of Warcraft running regular Wine vs DXVK. In this example, you can see that DXVK is three times the FPS in most cases!
Proton has some support for automatically use these technologies when they're applicable, but you may want to use Lutris for games that aren't officially supported.

8. Troubleshooting

I personally can't spend a lot of time helping people individually. That's where this and other communities come in!
When asking about your problems, remember to give as much info as you can. For example, include what Distro you're on, what you have already tried, any error messages that come up, anything you've changed recently, etc.

9. The end

I, u/PBLKGodofGrunts, put this guide under the WTFPL License. Please attach this license when sharing or modifying this guide. I hope that this is helpful to someone.
submitted by PBLKGodofGrunts to linux_gaming [link] [comments]

MAME 0.213

MAME 0.213

It's really about time we released MAME 0.213, with more of everything we know you all love. First of all, we’re proud to present support for the first Hegener + Glaser product: the “brikett” chess computers, Mephisto, Mephisto II and Mephisto III. As you can probably guess, there’s an addition from Nintendo’s Game & Watch line. This month it’s Mario’s Bombs Away. On a related note, we’ve also added Elektronika’s Kosmicheskiy Most, exported as Space Bridge, which is an unlicensed total conversion of the Game & Watch title Fire. If you haven’t played any of the handheld LCD games in MAME, you’re missing something special – they look superb with external scanned and traced artwork.
On the arcade side, we’ve added The Destroyer From Jail (a rare Philko game), and alternate regional versions of Block Out and Super Shanghai Dragon’s Eye. The CD for Simpsons Bowling has been re-dumped, resolving some long-standing issues. With its protection microcontroller dumped and emulated, Birdie Try is now fully playable. Protection microcontrollers for The Deep and Last Mission have also been dumped and emulated. Improvements to Seibu hardware emulation mean Banpresto’s SD Gundam Sangokushi Rainbow Tairiku Senki is now playable, and sprite priorities in Seibu Cup Soccer have been improved.
In computer emulation, two interesting DOS compatible machines based on the Intel 80186 CPU are now working: the Mindset Personal Computer, and the Dulmont Magnum. The Apple II software lists have been updated to include almost all known clean cracks and original flux dumps, and the Apple II gameport ComputerEyes frame grabber is now emulated. We’ve received a series of submissions that greatly improve emulation of the SWTPC S/09 and SS-30 bus cards. On the SGI front, the 4D/20 now has fully-working IRIX 4.0.5 via serial console, and a whole host of improvements have gone into the Indy “Newport” graphics board emulation. Finally, MAME now supports HDI, 2MG and raw hard disk image files.
As always, you can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

MAME 0.213

MAME 0.213

It's really about time we released MAME 0.213, with more of everything we know you all love. First of all, we’re proud to present support for the first Hegener + Glaser product: the “brikett” chess computers, Mephisto, Mephisto II and Mephisto III. As you can probably guess, there’s an addition from Nintendo’s Game & Watch line. This month it’s Mario’s Bombs Away. On a related note, we’ve also added Elektronika’s Kosmicheskiy Most, exported as Space Bridge, which is an unlicensed total conversion of the Game & Watch title Fire. If you haven’t played any of the handheld LCD games in MAME, you’re missing something special – they look superb with external scanned and traced artwork.
On the arcade side, we’ve added The Destroyer From Jail (a rare Philko game), and alternate regional versions of Block Out and Super Shanghai Dragon’s Eye. The CD for Simpsons Bowling has been re-dumped, resolving some long-standing issues. With its protection microcontroller dumped and emulated, Birdie Try is now fully playable. Protection microcontrollers for The Deep and Last Mission have also been dumped and emulated. Improvements to Seibu hardware emulation mean Banpresto’s SD Gundam Sangokushi Rainbow Tairiku Senki is now playable, and sprite priorities in Seibu Cup Soccer have been improved.
In computer emulation, two interesting DOS compatible machines based on the Intel 80186 CPU are now working: the Mindset Personal Computer, and the Dulmont Magnum. The Apple II software lists have been updated to include almost all known clean cracks and original flux dumps, and the Apple II gameport ComputerEyes frame grabber is now emulated. We’ve received a series of submissions that greatly improve emulation of the SWTPC S/09 and SS-30 bus cards. On the SGI front, the 4D/20 now has fully-working IRIX 4.0.5 via serial console, and a whole host of improvements have gone into the Indy “Newport” graphics board emulation. Finally, MAME now supports HDI, 2MG and raw hard disk image files.
As always, you can get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

Clones promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

Significant Dualities, in Nature and in Societies

Caution: This article is a long read, and goes in many directions. For the curious mind, it's a lively mindfield to explore and come back again and again. If you prefer poster images, never mind.
Some links occur here mostly because they're interesting, and somehow are part of a duality.
For me, duality means at least two things which are associated somehow, but considered separately are different. We don't need to count above 2, like say 'polyality' because obviously the idea of divergence, or fork, is able to have many 'tines' or separate paths. (See Tuning Fork, below.) We don't have time to cover every possibility, so let's just stick with 2, the most simple case of multiple. (See Rhizome Philosophy for an interesting alternative to this binary association structure. Also the paragraph titled "Association Schemes" in Exploiting the Pyramid.)
We aren't considering pairs of identicals, like dual wheels, two of exactly the same thing, but maybe if there is a small difference, or doubtful meaning between similar things (see dual internal organs under anatomy, below).
Sometimes the association between things is not obvious, in which case we better explain, but most dualities are obviously two tined. Let it go at that.
Tuning Fork, a synchronous dynamic opposition, and also an acoustic device having a dual nature similar to both stringed eg. Piano and other percussion devices (eg. Glockenspiel. See also disambiguation of similar percussion instruments. Tuning forks have the advantage of needing no containment structure because their duality counter-balances the vibrations. All the other devices have a single resonator for each tone.
Dualism (disambiguation index) | wkpd
Fake Word Similarities Dual not confused with duel Dual not confused with do all. (Obvious.)
Duality expressions
flip side
double edged sword
Janus faced
dark side-- bright side
balance equilibrium equation
opposites (word list)
positive-negative (photography))
bilateral symmetry
images, real vs virtual
paired symbols
yin-yang (principle) yin-yang (history)
Dual Obelisks, ancient Egypt (had different inscriptions on each)
duality as found on tumblr (index)
hypocrisy vs sincerity (philosophical mirror) hypocrisy sincerity sin cere means without wax, not a crackpot idea
Being a Leftist Means never having to Say You’re Sorry title of this essay inspired by a 1970s witticism
dual-process theory of human intelligence
The Balance (disambiguation index) | wkpd, in the physical, a two-sided weight comparator, in the abstract, the equation... possibly the most significant model (3) of reality ever conceived.
Exercising Equations, For Example...
How can things fly, and boats sail upwind?
Bernoulli's two-path model of lift vs Newton's Reaction of air-inertia model of force
Previous link models a lifting surface as a flat-plane and air is deflected in a single direction. Modeling a lifting surface as an arc also works, but no simple reference explaining this is found. So I'm going to do it, very briefly...
Imagine a wing, or sail, is a simple arc, and a small sample of air passing by it is like a stone on a string.. Air has mass, therefore thrusting it around a curve causes a reaction force opposite the center of the curve (aka lift.)
This is an important example because large commercial aircraft wings are complex mechanical devices that change shape depending on speed (scroll down to Flaps). At low speed, the wing simulates an arc, and a sail is made loose to form a larger curve. (Sailing in light airs, reduce tension on halyards, while a tight (more flat) sail configuration is called 'close-hauled').
Binary Thinking, True or False?
What is it? | qra
Binary opposition WARNING: Cultural Marxism, deconstruction
False dilemma, an obstacle to effective negotiation, in which nuances and concessions should be considered, not "take it or leave it" ultimatums
GOOD, BAD, UGLY? 2015 | stnfd
Example: Evolution vs Religious Tradition (Creationism) Purpose or no Purpose, that's the question: Darwinism: Survival without Purpose 2007 Another example from Mark Driscoll
Biblical Christianity requires black-and-white thinking because it is dualistic... Mainstream culture refuses to allow any categories because that would mean making distinctions, which ultimately ends in making value judgments. (which is DISCRIMINATION!) For the record, I am in favor of discrimination, not by race, but by behavior record. Discriminating Evolution from Intelligent Design (the flaws clause) 7 min
Boolean Logic
technical: Bifurcation theory
Binary Options
Wave–particle duality | wkpd Wave–particle duality (article index) | scidly Light and Sound CGI video, wave-particle duality 25 min
position vs momentum (uncertainty principle)
observer vs object observed (anthropic principle)
Energy-mass duality | wkpd
Mutual-Influence Orbital Oscillation Patterns
Mass Duality vs Time, Effects
Lunacy; tidal lock one side seen, one side hidden
Orbital resonance
Example: Earth-Luna orbit each other; Luna's mass is 0.0123 of earth's. Earth oscillates due to Luna, but radius of orbit is less than Earth's radius, so it's less obvious. See Barycenter. See also NASA, Moon, Luna's orbit, and Libration. https://music.stackexchange.com/questions/24243/what-is-the-difference-between-a-xylophone-a-glockenspiel-marimba-a-xylorimba#24245
Earth Mother Goddess Duo: Gaia/Medea Hypothesis
Internal Organ Duals, Why? What are paired organs? (lists) 2018 | qra Symmetry Why do we have two of some organs, but not all? 2014 | stkxchg
Respiratory-Circulatory System Overlap (dual function) Venous Blood forced by thoracic-ambient pressure differential... Heart and lungs are together in the pulmonary cavity, experience simultaneous pressure fluctuations (scroll down to 'Respiratory Pump'), thus fluid influx and egress (air is a fluid). Respiration includes blood circulation, the respiratory and circulatory systems are inextricably linked.
Note that previous articles omit hydrostatic pressure which influences venous circulation (fluid pressure is higher at lower elevations, depending on density; eg. Hg (used in barometers) is 13.534g/cm3, blood is 1.06 g/cm3 (slightly more than water)). When you experience tingling, numbness or swelling due to inactivity, raise the inactive limbs above heart, gravity will help the circulation. Also, dizziness might be due to pressure variations in brain, such as suddenly standing upright after kneeling for awhile. Move more slowly.
Notice that we have only indirect control over heart-rate. We can increase physical activity (especially respiration) voluntarily, then the autonomous nerve system takes care of the rates.
Origin of Sex
Reproduction, Evolution of
When Did Sex Become Fun? 2016 | spns
A Brief History of Human Sex 2006 | lvsci
Chromosome Duality predicts longevity, reliably Scientists Discover Why women live longer Petrov 8 min
The sex with the reduced sex chromosome dies earlier: a comparison across the tree of life Mar.2020
Polarization (waves) see also Introduction to Polarized Light
magnetic geomagnetic pole
Bi-polar Disorder (mental health)
Dysphoric Mania in Bipolar Disorder (reality IS bipolar, see previous links)
dysphoria is a profound state of unease or a general dissatisfaction with life
split personality, eg. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Euphoria vs Dysphoria
psycho-active stimulants create euphoria 10 BEST LEGAL EUPHORIC HIGH HERBS 2017 See also 4 Most Euphoric Nootropics
What are Nootropics?
What Is Rejection Sensitive Dysphoria?
DUO - Animation Short Film (Fr) 2014 - GOBELINS (for some performance artists, life is a matter of trust) 3.5 min
Dual inheritance theory
Moral Duality
Bi-polar Disorder (social inequality), topic continues under heading "Double Standard of Morality" (scroll down)... A simple two-tier arrangement of mucked-up social "order" which originated in prehistoric times, a result of a conquering group, aka "ruling class" which maintains a dominant position (see Dominance as social construct). The privileged class takes advantage in several ways, one of which allows THEM to commit crimes against US without consequence, but the reverse situation is dealt with harshly.
Assuming there is an ecological crisis, Culture Dysphoria 2015
The historic task of cultural change is to resolve throughout the dominant culture the distortions of rationalist human/nature dualisms that deny our ecological embodiment and membership of the global ecological community.
In Reality, trends toward the Cosmopolitan Cluster are profoundly dissatisfying to conservative individuals. The CC issue is a case of 'the melting pot'. see also Cosmopolitan Cluster
The urban rural divide in the US and other complexities of polarization JUL.17,2019 | ToL
New idea: 'indivi', I'm going to premise means not divided, a singleton, and dual means two. That leads us to... a person is an undivided twosome, let's assume it means mind-body.
What exactly is the duality of human nature? | qra (trick question, see answer by Mike Brant, also good, Marcos Sheldon Padilla (per mind-body), see next link)
More about Mind-Body
UR2 CGPGrey 5 min
Dual Citizenship
list of, a good place to look for spies Editorial: The problem of dual citizenship 2014... “dual citizenship can present a security issue whether to permit access to classified information which affects recruitment, employment and assignments.” -US State Dept. In some cases, dual citizenship could disqualify an applicant for a sensitive position with the CIA or the State Department. (But not so for Israelis?)... List Israeli Dual Citizens in the US. 114th Congress; Bernie Sanders is on it 2016 | SotN
Binary Competition US vs THEM
Right vs Left (politics)
angels and demons 2 Class Social Hierarchy (Social Order Simplified)
Double Standard of Morality
... is a necessary adjunct to an US vs THEM ethic... because conflating US with THEM gives us cognitive dissonance; (social) equality is oblivion
The Dual Code of Morality
CHINA Strategy; moral dualities
Double Standard of Morality A necessary adjunct to US vs THEM ethic
social equality is oblivion
Bite the Hand that FED you; Ferried by kin-dness from Diaspora to Serendip, then They try to sink that "kin"ship
How the Jews Destroyed Germany | rjn
Jewish Declaration of War on Nazi Germany 1933
How The Jews Destroyed America | rjn
Nazi Jews- “Jew's own worst enemy!” 2007 Makow\rense
Cabalist Bankers Funded Hitler Via Wehrmacht Sep.2019 | svmls
Jewish Origins of Communism
For (Moses) Hess, the cardinal sin of the Judaic people was to abandon their heritage, while the cardinal objective of his Communism was to persuade all other people to abandon theirs…
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"Of Nen and Zen". A short essay concerning the eastern philosphy and mysticism in hunterxhunter.

Soo.. this has taken a lot longer than anticipated, but I think it is ready.
I believe I found something that shines a new light on togashi's nen system(maybe somebody already pointed this out but, maybe not. Either way this will be my own spin on it.) This will take some time to explain and is not the easiest of topics to convey with words, but I'll try my best. So bare with me. It will be worth it I promise.
Oh and by the way, I'm not a native speaker, so there are probably many misspellings and grammar fuckups included. I tried my best with what I've been taught, but yes there probably will be A LOT. :D
If anyone would like to help improve the grammar of this post, please message me.

- The book of changes -

how two makes four

So, I'm really interested in eastern philosophy and mysticism and while researching the four basic elements, I came about a system that goes up and beyond. It's kind of like the binary system actually. It starts with 2 components, light/hard and dark/soft. Those would resemble the dual level represented by 1/0 or yin and yang. They are portrayed as a continuous line **--- for yang(light)**and a discontinuous line - - for yin(dark). It's a bit un intuitive as they are drawn in black, but what can we do. While it doesn't visually fit with light and dark, there is another property included that is portrayed better through the lines and that is --- yang(hard) and - - yin(soft). The space really helps in conveying the soft quality at least. But enough critiquing of ancient peoples work. I really like to believe they wanted to do better, but just couldn't get their hands on that white ink. So let's cut them some slack and move on.
There are many things in nature that share a dual relation like that, to name a few: cold/warm, fast/slow, night/day, male/female and also to heaven(天) and earth(地) as in spatial directions. They're relation might seem opposite at firs,t but only on the conceptual level. In nature its an ever flowing and changing process.

Yin, dark, soft (female) - -
Yang, light, strong (male) ---
So, right now we have only 2 distinct states, but if we add another line to the image we are suddenly left with four different states (in mathemathical terms this would be 2^2[ two exponent two] in this case 2\2, the first number being the possible states of the unit and the exponent being the number of units combined.* It's neat to see this, but if you totally loathe math, just ignore it, it's not needed to understand this.)
Anyway, I think these are the ones most people are familiar with: air(wind and sometimes wood), water, fire, earth also called: old yin, young yang, young yin, old yang. They make up a continuous cycle while inheriting and recombining the above properties and are fundamentally described like this:

Wind, (風)

dry, subtle, coldest (male)

Water (水)

most humid, dense, cold (female)

Fire (火)

dry, subtle, warmest (male)

Earth (土)

humid, densest, warm (female)

That's already pretty interesting I'd say, but what I really want to show you goes one step further. If we now add one more line (2^3), what we get are called the "8 trigrams". I first learned about these in German and now upon taking a closer look at the English versions out there, I chose to take the best from both worlds and use what I can.
Also, from here on out I can include the corresponding Unicode symbols (yes, they really are included, but unfortunately pretty small. But it's nice they don't count as images that way, curse you image limit!)

The 8 trigrams


☰ Kiën (乾 qián),

the creative, is the force, is strength, is the sky, the father

☷ Kun (坤 kūn) ,

the receptive, is the field, is devotion, is the earth, the mother


☳ Dshen (震 zhèn),

the thrilling/exciting, is movement, is shaking, is the thunder, the oldest sun

☵ Kan (坎 kǎn),

the abysmal, is danger, is deep water or clouds, the middle son

☶ Gen (艮 gèn),

the solitary, is serenity, is standstill, is the mountain, the youngest son

☴ Sun (巽 xùn),

the gentle yet penetrating, is the wind or wood, the oldest daughter

☲ Li (離 lí),

the adherent, is radiant, is conditioned or bound, is the sun, the flash or the clear flame, the middle daughter

☳ Dui (兌 duì),

the joyful, is happiness, is the lake, the youngest daughter

These archetypal forms of energy or emotion are also in a continuous cycle just like the four elements, having additionally gained complexity and character, they inherit everything from their ancestors. At this stage they take on a more personal form. Atleast the 6 children that is, as the parents are still pretty much yin/yang and are, because of that, "out of the picture". They somehow stand above and influence all six, while not descending into their play.

As you probably have noticed this can be done another time creating now 16 variations, but let's not go there, the really important ones right now are the 6 children. Because, you now what also comes in the package of 6?

Yes, Aura types.
Could it really be possible to match these with our 6 categories of nen? Well I have tried. Tell me what you think:

Btw: This is my first drawing since like 10 years and that was highschool art class, so please spare me. If anyone wants to improve this. please do. :D The color grading is still pretty on point though and I wouldn't change that much about it if I did another one. Also this was born directly out of my inspiration when I found out about this, so it kind of grew on my heart. So shush! :P

- Wheel of emotion -


Note: This is my own system of ordering it. I choose it to match togashi's system and also because I think it's the most fitting when looking at personal energies. Only in this order you can really show the flow of energy visually. The original from the book of changes which is funnily called the "I Ging" (at least in German it is. I think there are different pronunciations out there) includes all 8 trigrams, but leaves out circular motion. (I will add that too as reference) .

So what does that jumble mean?
Basically, one could look at it as an age cycle of energy. from young age "Li" all throughout the maturing process right into old age "Gen". But there are many things happening in between that can be looked at.

To get a better understanding and overview, let us first look the symbols in the corner that represent our previous four basic elements:

alternate symbols

fire > passion, action

water < flow, emotion

air ^ renewal, intelligence

earth v courage, memory

The second part of this attribution comes from the yogic sciences, where there are four pillars of yoga.
Yoga however does not mean "twisting your body". It means unity and is the path of seeking inclusion.
I included them because they are the only 4 sources you can use to enhance your self.

Fire: Karma yoga. The yoga of action. Using your body and your movement to generate energy.
Water: Bhakti yoga. The yoga of emotion. Using your emotion to include something into your self.
Air: Kriya yoga. The yoga of life energy. Bringing change to once own life energies.
AiEarth: Ghana yoga. The yoga of intelligence, Using your mind to penetrate the world and become something more.

This is how they get extracted from the geometric hexagram:

There's also another symbol right at the bottom (where gen is), that looks at bit weird.
It's the lesser known fifth element:

Akasha or Aether

It's somewhat mysterious and hard to describe as it is invisible in nature.
It's below and above the other four elements in the way that all of the other elements happen in it. It is:
No, not the literal space out in the night sky.. whereby it's often used as a visual representation, but what it really points to is the space that's all around us.
There are things in space and there is space. That's akasha.
There are different symbols used to represent it. In nature it corresponds to the universe, plasma or the color purple


So far we've seen only the main attributition. Here's a more in-depth list of personal traits and correspondences for the four in their pure form. If we look at them in the dynamic spectrum they can mix quite heavily. Aether is not really relevant in that sense, but I think it's important to know its there.
(It's interesting how akasha is not really an element and specialisation is not really a class. But still I fail to see a direct connection. Also the symbol of the hunter association looks very similar.)


Elemental correspondences:

The element of fire (choleric)
Positive qualities: vigorousness, zeal, enthusiasm, courage, decisiveness, power of creativity, daring, sedulity...
Negative qualities: quarrelsomeness, irritability, urge to destroy everything, passion, immoderacy, jealousy, voraciousness, vindictiveness, violence, hate, anger, sudden ebullition...
The element of air (sanguine)
Positive qualities: clarity, intelligence, vigilance, care-freedom,diligence, kind-heartedness, swiftness, clarity, lightness, independency, dexterity, optimism
Negative qualities: overly intellectual, lack of perseverance, dishonesty, gossipy, cunningness, garrulousness, inconstancy, touchiness, prodigality...
The element of water (phlegmatic)
Positive qualities: understanding, placidity, mildness, trusting nature, devotion, mercy, forgiveness, modesty, compassion, , pliancy, meditativeness, internalization...
Negative qualities: corruptness, lust, depression, indifference, heartlessness, laziness, indolence, rigidity, lack of daring, lack of concern, unstableness, dejection...
The element of earth (melancholic)
Positive qualities: consistency, conscientiousness, perseverance, punctuality, caution, resistance, responsibility, carefulness, firmness, reliability, sobriety, ambition, respectfulness, matter-of-factness...
Negative qualities: stuffiness, superficiality, laziness, indifference, cumbersomeness, touchiness, lack of conscientiousness, irregularity, timidity, scornfulness...

Somehow they also relate to the four major principles, but I haven't found a way too assign them sufficiently. This is all I got so far:

Technique Main element -> properties Supporting -> properties
Ten Water control of flow, serenity, rest in emotion earth steady, calm, balance, unmoving
Zetsu Earth no outflow, contain, rest, - -
Ren Fire power,strength Wind growing through change, tempering of will (objective)
Hatsu Fire aggression, release, outward projecting, ready, decisive Wind movement, change
While not perfect, there's definitely a tendency to be seen here. Most noticeably that ten and zetsu both employ "female" qualities, while ren and hatsu are dominated by "male" qualities.

While being more subtle, correspondences like that can also be found for each of the trigrams. I haven't found a source for that so I'll list all that I picked up:

Trigram Nature correspondences Properties
Li flame, flash, sun radiant, clear, light, adherent, bound, conditioned, steady
Dshen thunder, quaking, roaring movement, action, agitation, thrill, excitement, loud, rash, energetic, rushing
Dui lake, swamp, spring joy, innocence, open, light hearted, happy-go-lucky, avid, kind
Kan abyss, deep water, gorge playful, versatile, trickster, hidden, danger, knowledge of evil, corrupt
Sun wind, wood, tree soft, balancing, understanding, knowledgeble, intelligent, calculating, penetrating, strict
Gen mountain, rock, stone independent, strong, firm, solely, serene, unmoving, still.

Now that we got ourselves acquainted with the elemental 101 we can go and look deeper into it.

- Relations between children -

(I advise to keep the image of the wheel of emotion open in a sidetab, so it can be looked at while reading the explanation. Otherwise you'll need a very good memory or an avid scrolling finger, But it seems i can post it one more time, so here you go:)

The arrows in the middle that form a hexagon display the hierarchy from oldest to youngest child of each gender and also indicate the parents from which they inherit. As you can see male and female alternate with every image. While not a classification on their own they have a subtle impact on all six. However, one can't simple say that dshen is purely male as these "borders" get washed out increasingly through generations (if there ever were any).
The neighboring images are balancing each other, as one seems to always want to reach into the next.
Progressing like: -> li - dschen - dui - kan - sun - gen -> into li again.
There are many interactions seen in this: The stable earth (gen) wanting to become energy (li) -> pure energy becoming excitement (dschen), energeticness wanting to get a taste of colorful emotion (dui) -> the resulting happiness longing to become deeper emotion (kan) -> deepness becoming gentle and intelligent (sun) -> then growing strong and independent (gen) and finally the lonesomeness wanting to become warm again through communion with the outside world (li).
This example is arbitrary and also you can't really set boundaries on this. I just did, so you have a general understanding of the flow that's being portrayed here. The early form of a trigram differs so heavily from its late version, it could be a new classification on it's own. But more on that later. First let's look at some rules in relation to the hunterxhunter system:

Adjacent categories have a 80% learning capability and are always the ones, that are, not of the same age group and also of the opposing gender. Admittedly, it's a bit difficult to see, so here's an example:
specialization/gen (youngest son) 80%-- conjuration/sun( oldest daughter) 100%-- transmutation/kan (middle son) 80%
When the classification that is looked at for adaptibility is conjuration, which is a daughter, then it would mean the most promising categories will be the sons of a different age group. (Okay.. and what does that mean? I don't know, but that's how it is.) And that's also were the natural balancing flow of energy wants to go:
The strictness and composure of conjuration(sun) wanting to become free through the unbound emotional deepness of transmutation(kan) and the burden of the working intelligence wanting to become cool, steady and lonesome through specialization(gen). While there's a definite tendency towards clockwise progression, it's fair to say that change and interaction can be noticed in every direction. For example the gentleness of sun can calm the troubled waves of kan.

Categories of the same gender always have a 60% learning capability.
If the classification look at is again Conjuration/Sun(oldest daughter), then it would be the other both daughters manipulation/Li(middle) and enhancement/duì(young), that can be learned at a 60% rate. They form a triangle and always have a son in between.
same sex=same rate

The polar category is the one that has the same age, but is of a different gender. I sometimes look at it as the archenemy category, because it's so opposing. If we look at conjuration(sun) again our counter would be emission(zhèn). Heavy planning and thinking and perfectionism against well, Leorio.. :D If one wants to wield the other there is bound to be chaos. And maybe that's why its 40% only,
Here are some Nen users that share this connection.

Gon & Pitou
Leorio & Kurapica
Netero & Meruem
Killua & Illumi
Hisoka & Illumi

Here's a chart that brings all aura types into perspective

Aura type Abilities, Talents Tendencies Real world professions (allthough any can be all) Sin
Manipulator influence, control, govern, guide, teach outward, change/love teachers, parents , leaders, politicians, malevolence
Emitter being heard, bringing change, enforcing will outward, justice/ truth speakers, politicians, dancers,singers, police forces wrath
Enhancer physical, simple approach, improving, strenghtening outward, courage/carefre athletes, labourer, dancers egoism
Transmuter bending energy, keeping flow, shifting states, jokes, wearing a mask inward, love/change comedians, trickster, actor, artists, singer, dancer, writer, poets insanity, lust
Conjurer understanding the world and it's rules, living by it and creating something from it -> strategy, science, math, writing, poetry inward, truth/justice investigator, strategists, professors, academics, poets pride
Specialists doing everything alone, special talents who have to be seen, unique inward, carefree/courage people who need nobody yet attract others because of that, types you just can't label. Know'em when you meet'em. indifference

You could look at it for days in this way and find harmonies and disharmonies, it's quite beautiful. For me it has become more than an anime fighting system. Its energy and emotion in the play of life. While you certainly can't just pull out hatsus in real life there are some overlappings with the realm of talents and mastery of the real world. It really makes you wonder. But to spare you from my fascinated rambling, I will now move on unto the next thing I have found.

- And Zen what? -

As I have said before it's possible to add another line to the informational pool to achieve 16 variations(2*2*2). But that's not whats being done by the book of changes. It skips this stage entirely and directly combines two trigrams into one hexagram. If this is done for every possible combination there are suddenly 64 hexagrams. They create a much bigger array of possible states and changes between them, but to be honest that's too much work to show and explain right now. For one, this is no taoist university (I wonder if there really is such a thing) and it also goes beyond of what is useful for our purpose here. If you are really interested, look into that on your own. It's not that it's not worth it, but I don't want to infodump you to death.

I will now look at some specific constellations of the hexagrams that are of direct importance for the hunterverse. First we have the 8(6) "double images". It's obvious that when recombining all of the trigrams, we should also be left with 8 images that are a repetition of themselves. They give some new insight and add on on what we already now. The quality of amplification and repetition shines through in their meaning.

Note: All of the description that will follow are from a collection of sources. "Buch der Wandlungen"(book of changes from Richard Wilhelm). Excerpts used and translated into english by me.
original: https://schuledesrades.org/public/iging/buch/?Q=5/1
Quotes and descriptions from different english sites.
And infoormation and symbols from this https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexagram_(I_Ching))

But now, let's get started.

離 (lí), "radiance"

Other variations include "the clinging, fire" and "the net". Its inner trigram is ☲ (離 lí) radiance = (火) fire, and its outer trigram is identical.
The origin of the character has its roots in symbols of long-tailed birds such as the peacock or the legendary phoenix
Fire has no definite form, it adheres to things and burns that way. Like water raining from the sky, fire blazes upwards. Everything that is shining in the world is bound to something that it adheres too, only in that way it can shine on. For something to shine endlessly, there surely needs to be tenacity.
The clinging means resting on something. When the waters of the Abysmal flow into the pit, we search for something to cling to." Li is the image of the Clinging Fire, formless except the essence of fuel that keeps it burning.when undergoing drastic changes on the outside the only footing is the reference point of the personal self.
What emerges from any difficult transition is the discovery of that thing which will guide and support you when all else is taken away. This is like a light that is always burning in the darkness. Although events ‘out there’ orchestrate the changes, they merely lead you to cultivate a shift of awareness ‘in here.’

震 (zhèn), "the shaking"

Other variations include "the arousing (shock)" and "thunder". Both its inner and outer trigrams are ☳ (震 zhèn)
This movement is so intense it's frightening. The image is the thunder who burst out from earth and by his quaking causes fright and trembling. While initially dreadful the uproar ensures renewal and success in the future.
It's the oldest sun, who vigorously seizes power. A taking of charge. A new status quo. -
When children ride roller coasters, they discover that allowing fear to have expression is energizing. If only we could always remain joyous in approaching our fears as we move along our dusty road. Unfortunately we grow complacent and seek security and stasis. Anything in nature that becomes stagnant will be re-energized by the unexpected. “Shock brings success. Shock comes – oh oh! Laughing words – ha ha!” Whether hurricanes balance ocean temperatures or tumultuous autumn and spring storms invigorate new growth, nobody can hide from nature’s power to keep all things thriving. The Shocking can symbolize the unexpected things that generate emotion and wake us up.
The feelings arising are quite unfamiliar but refreshingly new. What worked in the past will no longer do. The two words most associated with Zhen is ‘uh oh!’ However, it should be viewed in the same laughing sentiment as children riding a roller coaster. Something is coming that is unexpected but is meant to awaken you to how you hide. Each day we witness the mutability of nature and fail to recognize it in our own life. No matter the event, the pace may quicken and you may suddenly find your heart racing and a smile on your face.

兌 (duì), "the joyous, lake"

Other variations include: "open", "usurpation" and swamp. Both its inner and outer trigrams are ☱ (兌 duì).
The happy mood is contagious, that's why it's prevailing. But joy needs a foundation of stability, so it doesn't degenerate into utter foolishness. Truth and strength need to dwell in the heart, while meekness is for all to see. contrary to intuition joy is not the result of the softness of the topmost line. The property of the soft/dark principal is not joy, but melancholy. The real joy comes through it's inner toughness and strength, which shows itself through the means of softness.
The repititon: The happy mood is contagious, that's why it's prevailing. But Joy needs a foundation of stability, so it doesn't degenerate into utter foolishness. Truth and strength need to dwell in the heart, while meekness is for all to see. -

More often than not it's inner opening rather than the effort or movement to change outer events that has led to joy. Often we feel the opposite of Joy in the form of unhappiness and see it as something negative. Unhappiness is the hunger pain for change so how can it be bad? The saying, “if you never fail, you will always succeed” means that if failure is taken in stride as a prerequisite to success it isn’t really failure. This accepting outlook leads to joyousness on the journey.
“Content in your circumstances and genuine in kindness, you are the expression of the love that renews all things.”
While we can do little to change the events that unfold around us, a change in perspective can magically change everything. Be Joyous in thought and action and celebrate others. Since life is your mirror it will reflect joyousness back to you.

坎 (kǎn), "the abysmal"

Other variations include "Gorge" and "repeated entrapment". Its inner trigram is ☵ (坎 kǎn) and its outer trigram is identical.
Through repitition of danger there is accustoming. Water serves as a good example in these kind of situations. It's always flowing and ever only fills all those gaps that its flowing through. It's not leaving out a single dangerous spot, fears no ledge or fall and is in that way always staying true to itself. If a situation is handled internally, there's a good chance it will sort itself out externally. To fully prevail through danger, there needs to be thoroughness, so that everything that needs to be done, gets done and there is no chance of succumbing to the danger. -

For the benefit of the flowers, we water the thorns too. – Egyptian Proverb

Can one honestly look back and not see the meaning for any of challenges that were had in the past? Going through the danger is necessary to discover who we are, what we really need and what we are capable of accomplishing. There is great power and realizations to be obtained when confronting fear in the deep waters of the unconscious. The dangerous flow of water can lead somewhere beneficial if you just relinquish control and let go of your fear.
Without trusting in the flow of events, many situations can seem threatening, but only in proportion to the disparity that exists between the necessary transition and the fear of going there. When you recognize the things that you cannot change, you discover life's power to lead you. The path is frightening but a commitment to move forward and jump into the flow leaves no option of turning back.

巽 (xùn), "the gentle (the penetrating, wind)"

Other variations include "ground" and "calculations". Both its inner and outer trigrams are ☴ (巽 xùn).
It's image is wind or wood, it's property is gentleness and yet it is penetrating like the wind or the wood with it's roots. In nature it's the wind, which is clearing the clustered clouds and enabling the sun to shine through. For humanity it's the penetrating clarity of righteous judgement, which knocks out all ulterior motives. In society it may be the influence of a powerful figure, who reveals and disperses any and all shady schemings
When the oak is felled the whole forest echoes with its fall, but a hundred acorns are sown in silence by an unnoticed breeze. – Thomas Carlyle

There is gentleness and enormous power associated with the hexagram of penetration. Like the wind blowing over vast periods of time against a mountain, the smallest influence when applied with a steadfast attitude can break down any barrier.

艮 (gèn), "the mountain"

Other variations include "keeping still, "rooted" and "stilling". Both its inner and outer trigrams are ☶ (艮 gèn)
True peace is holding still when it's due and moving forward when the time to move forward has come again. In this way, rest and movement is in balance with time and it's necessities. The image is end and start of all movement. As a symbol it could be the spinal of the human body. In it, all nerves controlling movement join together. If there's a seizing of action for all of these nerves, total standstill of the system will be the consequence.
If now a human becomes this still on the inside, then he may face the uneasy and quarrelsome world. He will not get dragged into the fights and upheaval caused by it's inhabitants and has the necessary calmness needed to comprehend the great rules and workings of the world. He, who is acting from this place of deep rootedness, doesn't make mistakes anymore.
In the book of changes rest is described as a polar state, only achieved through the constant counterbalancing with movement.

So there's that. I would like to continue here, but apparently there's a 40.000 character limit. So the continuation will be in part 2.
And that's also where it really gets interesting.


See you there!

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Binary Options Country Guides; USA; Australia; Scams; News; Tips & Tricks; Exotic And Double Digital Options. 1. Introduction. To achieve a proper understanding of the two terms exotic option and double digital option, it is important to that the term option be defined in financial perspectives. Therefore the word option as applied in finance denotes a contract which is used in stock markets ... Dual Binary Option. This psychology of being able to focus on limits and the dual. This was not the case in 2008 when binary options trading started since there were about 10 trading platforms. An investor gets a better interest rate than the normal market rates by entering a Dual Currency Deposit product. Two of the pid-file option (which by ... _ dual digital fx options binary options review brokers 12 inc; Tipps für binäre optionen; Zu guter Letzt – generelle Binäre Optionen Tipps und Tricks für Anfänger Neben den Strategien gibt es natürlich noch einige weitere Binäre Optionen Tipps, die sehr hilfreich für Anfänger sein können. They are also called all-or-nothing options, digital options (more common in forex/interest rate markets), and fixed return options (FROs) (on the American Stock Exchange). [1] For example, a purchase is made of a binary cash-or-nothing call option on XYZ Corp's stock struck at $100 with a binary payoff of $1,000. Both bodies have not shown interest in licensing and regulating binary options brokers in the US. So, US customers have to depend on offshore-based brokers for binary options trading. To avoid becoming victims of fraud, US customers are advised to investigate the broker thoroughly before investing their hard-earned money in trading with them. Make sure the broker offers advantages such as easy ... There are only two possible outcomes with binary options, also known as Digital or Fixed Rate Options (FROs). The payout is fixed at the time of beginning of the trade. With binary options the moment you place your order, you know exactly how much you stand to gain or lose so that your risk is specifically limited. The trader is given the option to select the risk percentages for every trade ... Binary Options vs. Vanilla Options . A vanilla American option gives the holder the right to buy or sell an underlying asset at a specified price on or before the expiration date of the option. A ...

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Introduction to Interest Rate Swaps

This one was quite a shock! Cold calls stating that my binary option investments had grown to $103,000. The catch, I need to pay to have them released. Watch... Interest Rate Derivatives (IRD) - Pricing of Forward Rate Agreements (FRA) by Foreign Exchange Maverick Thinkers. 12:02. Play next; Play now; Interest Rate Derivatives (IRD) - Forward Rate ... Given input data, the worksheet in this file determines the price of European call or put interest rate options for maximum of 4 periods and it develops the option price binomial tree. ACCA P4 Interest rate options (part 1) - Duration: 15:48. OpenTuition 12,288 views. 15:48. CFA Level I Options Video Lecture by Mr. Arif Irfanullah part 2 - Duration: 34:39. ... Some binary options system present traders with binary options that permit traders have much more Manage more than their binary trading dashboard which can result in much better binary trading ... Here our expert, Doug Carroll, takes a few minutes to explain interest rate swaps to you. This module is part of a longer, online video course. Contact us about this program, or for immediate ... This binary trading expense is so straightforward in that it offers traders only two probable binary options: yes or no. It is the dual decision that resulted into the identify ‘binary options ...